By S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith
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Extra resources for Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of principles and practice
Has reduced density. Thus a greater volume is required to pass through a Rotameter flowmeter to maintain the bobbin at a certain height, because it is the number of gas molecules hitting the bobbin that support it. The flowmeters therefore under-read at high altitudes. However, since the clinical effects depend on the number of molecules, not volume of gas, the flowmeters may be used as normal. Leissner KB, Mahmood FU (2009). J Anesth; 23: 543–53 Altitude, low. Problems are related to high pressure: those of hyperbaric O2 (see Oxygen, hyperbaric).
Amphotericin is available encapsulated in liposomes or as a complex with sodium cholesteryl sulphate, both of which reduce its toxicity. ● Dosage: 1–5 mg/kg/day iv, depending on the formulation. ● Side effects: renal and hepatic impairment, nausea and vomiting, electrolyte disturbance, especially hypokalaemia, arrhythmias, blood dyscrasias, convulsions, peripheral neuropathy, visual and hearing disturbances. A test dose is recommended before iv administration because of the risk of anaphylaxis.
The equation also illustrates how hypercapnia may be associated with a lower PAO2. Another form of the equation allows for differences between inspired and expired gas volumes, and is unaffected by inert gas exchange: P O − PEO 2 alveolar PO2 = PIO2 − PA CO 2 − I 2 PECO 2 where PEO2 = mixed expired PO2 PECO2 = mixed expired PCO2 Alveolar–arterial oxygen difference (A–adO2). Alveolar PO2 minus arterial PO2. Useful as a measure of V/Q mismatch and anatomical shunt. Alveolar PO2 is estimated using the alveolar air equation; arterial PO2 is measured directly.
Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of principles and practice by S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith