Anatomy and physiology of farm animals - download pdf or read online

By R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon

ISBN-10: 0812114353

ISBN-13: 9780812114355

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A typical treatment of tissue before it can be examined with a light microscope includes the following: 1. Fixation with an agent, such as an aldehyde, that will cross-link the tissue proteins and prevent further changes in the tissue, such as autolysis and bacterial degradation. Alternatively, tissue may be frozen in liquid Table 2-1. Metric Linear Measurements Unit Abbreviation Relationships Meter m 1 m = 102 cm, 103 mm, 106 μm, 109 nm, 1010 Å Centimeter cm 1 cm = 10−2 m, 101 mm, 104 μm, 107 nm, 108 Å Micrometer (micron) μm 1 μm = 10−6 m, 10−4 cm, 10−3 mm, 103 nm, 104 Å Nanometer nm 1 nm = 10−9 m, 10−7 cm, 10−6 mm, 10−3 μm, 10 Å Angstrom Å 1 Å = 10−10 m, 10−8 cm, 10−7 mm, 10−4 μm, 10−1 nm 26 / ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS nitrogen to prevent such degenerative changes.

Tight junctions restrict the movement of water or dissolved materials into the space between adjacent cells. Gap junctions are formed by membrane proteins that extend between adjacent cells to form a passage for exchange of small molecules and ions (Fig. 2-10). The exchange of ions permits one cell to affect the electrical activity of the adjacent cell. These types of exchanges have special functional importance in cardiac muscle and certain types of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract.

Water replacement is almost entirely by drinking, because minimal amounts of water are produced in the bodies of domestic animals as a result of cellular metabolism (metabolic water). Proteins After water, proteins are the next largest constituent of protoplasm. Proteins are complex high-molecular-weight colloidal molecules consisting primarily of amino acids that are polymerized (joined) into polypeptide chains (Fig. 2-2A). The union of amino acids within a protein molecule is by way of a peptide linkage, a bond between the amino (NH2) group of one amino acid and the carboxyl (COOH) group of another amino acid, with the elimination of water.

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Anatomy and physiology of farm animals by R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon

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