Download e-book for kindle: Atlas of Normal Radiographic Anatomy and Anatomic Variants by Donald E. Thrall DVM PhD DACVR, Ian D. Robertson BVSc

By Donald E. Thrall DVM PhD DACVR, Ian D. Robertson BVSc DACVR

ISBN-10: 032331225X

ISBN-13: 9780323312257

ISBN-10: 0323312772

ISBN-13: 9780323312776

Equip your self to make actual diagnoses and accomplish profitable therapy results with this hugely visible accomplished atlas. that includes a considerable variety of new excessive distinction photographs, Atlas of standard Radiographic Anatomy and Anatomic variations within the puppy and Cat, second version provides an in-depth examine either general and non-standard topics in addition to demonstrations of right method and picture interpretations. specialist authors Donald E. Thrall and Ian D. Robertson describe a much broader diversity of "normal" compared to competing books — not just displaying typical canine and cats, but additionally non-standard matters corresponding to obese and underweight pets and animals with breed-specific adaptations. everybody half is placed into context with a textual description to assist clarify why a constitution seems because it does in radiographs, and allowing practitioners to understand adaptations of ordinary that aren't incorporated, in line with an realizing of simple radiographic principles.

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Extra info for Atlas of Normal Radiographic Anatomy and Anatomic Variants in the Dog and Cat, 2e

Example text

The dorsal laminae of C1 and C2 have been outlined with a dotted line. The relationship of the laminae of these vertebrae should be parallel or only slightly angled, as seen here. The normal slight angular relationship, designated here as angle theta (θ), may be either slightly acute or slightly obtuse at the intersection; in this dog, angle θ is slightly acute. 56 Atlas of Normal Radiographic Anatomy and Anatomic Variants in the Dog and Cat A B C D Figure 3-13. Lateral radiographs of the cranial aspect of the cervical spine of a 12-year-old Dachshund (A), a 7-year-old mixed breed dog (B), a 7-year-old Chihuahua (C), and a 3-yearold Toy Poodle (D).

N The Skull 43 when acquiring this view: the very condition one may be attempting to rule out, such as traumatic instability or congenital atlantoaxial instability, is potentially exacerbated by this positioning. THE MANDIBLES AND LARYNX There are two mandibles, left and right, united rostrally at the mandibular symphysis (Figure 2-39). Each mandible is divided into a body and, more caudally, the ramus. All teeth are located within the body. The ramus comprises primarily the coronoid process, which is a relatively flat plate in the sagittal plane and is the insertion site for muscles that close the mouth.

Positioning for a ventrodorsal radiograph of the spine is less tedious, with superimposition of the sternum and spine being the most important consideration. As with lateral views, the use of multiple centering points for each spinal region is also important for the ventrodorsal view. Although size and shape of vertebrae along the spine vary considerably, each vertebra has a set of core components. The vertebral body forms the bulk of each vertebra. Transverse processes extend laterally from the body.

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Atlas of Normal Radiographic Anatomy and Anatomic Variants in the Dog and Cat, 2e by Donald E. Thrall DVM PhD DACVR, Ian D. Robertson BVSc DACVR

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