By Professor Dr. Werner Nachtigall (auth.)
Bioengineering is the department of biology which applies the equipment of engineering and physics to the examine of organic phenomena, and the vocabulary of expertise to explain them. quite with appreciate to the mechanics of circulate and different physiological procedures, some great benefits of this method are seen. yet different fields of analysis additionally display new insights while biotechnical learn tools are utilized, and this kind of is the comparative morphology of organic constructions. no less than, description in technical phrases allows entire, concise association of a box of analysis, presents a way of describing organic types in phrases in step with their functionality, and aids in understanding interpretations in response to structural layout and sensible anatomy. it truly is from this viewpoint that the current e-book describes and discusses, on a comparative foundation, organic mechanisms of at tachment. even if those are one of the least difficult organic mechanisms, they're interesting of their range. This presentation is, in a manner, an outgrowth of that encyclopedic force that is inside each scientist. through the years, complete libraries of books were scanned because of this normal interest; the library of the Munich Zoological Institute has proved a very worthwhile resource of knowledge. This little publication is a miles ab breviated distillation of different thousand dossier playing cards which resulted from this urge to collect.
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Extra info for Biological Mechanisms of Attachment: The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction, and Adhesion
Figs. 126-129 illustrate the arrangement of the two copulating animals, with a semidiagrammatic reconstruction of the connecting organs (129). It is necessary that the attachment between the copulating partners be strictly dermed spatially. These mites live in the feathers of birds and are subjected to violent mechanical stresses when the bird flies; the delicate copulatory organs, the penis p and vagina v, are themselves not adequate to hold the animals together. Rather, they must be held together in a mechanically stable way, so that they cannot be shaken apart, before copulation can begin at all.
The combination has great tensile strength, and this is no doubt necessary, since the musculature of the female abdomen is certain to become fatigued during the long copulation of many dragonflies. Further details and illustrations of these remarkable adaptations are given by Pfau. The dragonflies can release the copulatory coupling very quickly. In contrast to the damselflies, which usually form a "mating chain" and then land on the ground for copulation, many dragonfly species carry out the entire reproductive act in flight.
It consists of a large number of double elements, arrayed in series and wedged together in pairs. A more detailed description is given on page 18. 1 required a precise alignment of the objects to be joined. In many cases, however, the purpose of the attachment is served even though the objects are not uniquely oriented. Here it is convenient if only one special connecting element is used, which can attach to any of a number of different places on the object to be held. The surface of the object, of course, must meet certain general requirements, which are different for the different types of connecting devices.
Biological Mechanisms of Attachment: The Comparative Morphology and Bioengineering of Organs for Linkage, Suction, and Adhesion by Professor Dr. Werner Nachtigall (auth.)